At an intersection of race, gender, sexuality, fandom, anger and laughter.
By 1680, you see the beginning of the changes. What had happened - and this is a complicated story - was that colonial leaders had to deal with Bacon and that rebellion. The British sent a fleet of three ships and by the time they got to Virginia, there were 8,000 poor men rebelling who had burned down Jamestown - blacks, whites, mulattos. And it was quite clear that this kind of unity and solidarity among the poor was dangerous.
After that, they began to pass laws, very gradually. They passed laws that gave Europeans privileges while they increasingly enslaved Africans. They passed a number of laws that prevented blacks, Indians, and mulattos from owning firearms, for example. Everybody had firearms. Everybody in Virginia still has firearms!
Then there was another change: There was a decline in the number of European servants coming to the New World. At the same time, there was an increase in the ships bringing Africans to the New World. By the 1690s or so, the English themselves had outfitted their ships to bring Africans back from the continent, and this is the first time that they had had direct connections.
But the Africans also had something else. They had skills which neither the Indians nor the Irish had. The Africans brought here were farmers. They knew how to farm semi-tropical crops. They knew how to build houses. They were brick makers, for example. They were carpenters and calabash carvers and rope makers and leather workers. They were metal workers. They were people who knew how to smelt ore and get iron out of it. They had so many skills that we don’t often recognize. But the colony leaders certainly recognized that. And they certainly gave high value to those slaves who had those skills.
After 1690 things begin to change. All of the Europeans become identified as “white.” And Africans take on a different kind of identity. They are not only heathens, but they are people who are perceived as vulnerable to being enslaved. And that’s a major point. Africans were vulnerable because it became part of the consciousness that they had no rights as Englishmen. Even the poorest Englishman knew that he had some rights. But once a planter owns a few Africans, the idea that the Africans had no rights that they had to recognize became very clear. And that’s why they were vulnerable to being enslaved, and kept in slavery. The laws that were passed after that all tended to diminish the rights of African people. But between 1690 and 1735, even those Africans who had been free and who had been there for many generations, had their rights taken away from them.
Once you magnify the difference between the slaves and the free, then it was possible to create a society in which the slaves were little better than animals. They were thought of as animals. And the more you think of slaves as animals, the more you justify keeping them as slaves.
After a while, slavery became identified with Africans. Blackness and slavery went together in the popular mind. And this is why we can say that race is a product of the popular mind, because it was this consciousness that blackness and slavery were bound together, that gave people the idea that Africans were a different kind of people.
Think of the early 17th century planter who wrote to the trustees of his company and he said, “Please don’t send us any more Irishmen. Send us some Africans, because the Africans are civilized and the Irish are not.” But 100 years later, the Africans become increasingly brutalized. They become increasingly homogenized into a category called “savages.” And all the attributes of savagery which the English had once given to the Irish, now they are giving to the Africans.
Why were Africans the slaves of choice?
Audrey Smedley is a professor of anthropology at Virginia Commonwealth University. She is author of Race in North America: Origins of a Worldview.
THIS THIS THIS
READ IT AND KNOW IT
IT DID NOT SPRING OUT OF THE GROUND IT WAS A CONCERTED EFFORT, AS IT ALWAYS IS
They took us because we HAD THE SKILLS.
And from then on, they lied to us, berated us and told us that we were without capacity to learn.
But we’re the lazy ones?
for those with an interest in the documentation and details, there’s also a summary of The Invention of the White Race by its author, Theodore W. Allen, here.
exactly. learned this MY LAST SEMESTER IN COLLEGE in a 400 level class taught by an amazing professor. (i have a feeling he’s probably met her, too)
Adam Fortunate Eagle (Red Lake Chippewa), on white privilege and the hippie movement in the Bay
This is why I have absolutely no patience for white men complaining about how their long hair isn’t socially acceptable—Native men were banned from having their hair long on threat of death, and for Native peoples, long hair has cultural significance that goes beyond the typical white dude’s aesthetic interest in growing his hair out. Asian men also forcibly had their hair chopped off (re: Chinese in California, for example), and there’s a long history of stigma against men with afros; for MOC to have their hair grown out is, while an aesthetic choice, also a cultural choice and in many cases can be seen as part of the day-to-day struggle against racism and colonialism. Long hair just does not carry that meaning for white men, and I’ll be damned if I’m gonna sit there and listen to them complain about how marginalized they are because they choose to have long hair because they think it looks cool (and let’s face it: they’re bitching because women don’t wanna date them—which could be for any number of reasons, or they’re whining about other more wealthy and powerful white men not taking them seriously; I don’t give a fuck about any of those struggles).
Not to mention the fact that white men created the very same system of sexist heteropatriarchy which defined long hair as feminine and made it socially unacceptable to the general populace in the first place. You don’t get to systematically destroy and marginalize an entire gender, assign that gender narrow physical characteristics and ideals of beauty, reappropriate and reuse those beauty ideals (usually feeding from racist romanticized colonial ideals of Nature and indigenous peoples anyways), and then complain because people don’t like your choice of hair style, like somehow you, the white dude, could ever be marginalized in any context.
omg i needed to see this post about long hair :c